即兴作品，即兴创作/Ji2 Xing4 Zuo4 Pin3, Ji2 Xing4 Chuang4 Zuo4
One of the first computer-based interactive improvisition system was demonstrated in 1968 at London's Institute for Contemporary Art. In the 1970s and early 1980s, composers pioneered the use of real-time algorithmic composition in performance. Activity in this domain has expanded rapidly since the spread of MIDI systems, which simplify and standardize the technical aspects of real-time performance.
The aesthetic aims of improvisation systems owe much to the confluence of algorithmic composition, live electronic music, free jazz, the improvisatory tradition, and the tradition of "sound sculpture". Besides the purely aesthetic aspect, a practical benefit of improvisation systems is that they allow a virtuoso soloist to create a dialog onstage.
(Source: Curtis Roads, The Computer Music Tutorial. MIT Press. 1995)
This is a difficult term to define, since it pertains to such a wide variety of diverse musical practices, but most simply put is the act of musical decision-making during performance. From the perspective of Western musical traditions, it will frequently relate to relationships between decisions made by composers (and normally written down through musical notation) and those made by performers as part of their interpretation of a composition. Decision-making may relate to micro-level aspects of the musical surface, or macro-level aspects of structure and form. Improvisation may rely upon some degree of pre-determined framework (whether notationally or otherwise culturally mediated). During the twentieth century significant musical developments for which improvisation was integral were jazz, and subsequently free jazz (which loosened use of frameworks of harmonic progression, melodic development, relationships between performers, and musical temporality) along with some forms of (experimental) rock. The experimental music movement that emerged in the UK during the 1960s, privileged improvisation with social and political, as well as sonic, motivations. Improvisation, too, was an influence upon the development of American minimalist music. The term free improvisation is used to describe performance that makes extremely limited use of pre-made decisions or frameworks, and is (in principle at least) completely stylistically open-ended.
As in other forms of contemporary music, improvisation in electroacoustic music may be closely related to forms of aleatory or indeterminacy. So-called live electronics is now long established and diverse. Improvisation and aleatory often meet where musicians have built custom electronic instruments and devices, for example in the 'composing inside electronics' aesthetics (associated with David Tudor), and performance with 'feedback instruments'. The digital connectivity offered through computer technologies has allowed musicians to experiment with new modes of collective and collaborative decision-making on stage. Also, improvisation can be found in activities outside of conventional performances, for example in the use made by many composers of analogue studio equipment in shaping sound materials, and the decision-making made by participants in real-time activity with sound across distributed networks. Improvisation is also an integral aspect of DJ culture and turntablism.
术语顾问/Consultant to terminology