图形式乐谱/Tu2 Xing2 Shi4 Yue4 Pu3
Generally, composers of electroacoustic music do not make visual scores of their works. Notable exceptions to this might include:
- a score of procedures to enable others to recreate a piece
- a representation of electroacoustic material to aid an instrumentalist or vocalist in a Mixed Work
- a representation of how sound materials on a fixed medium should be routed to apparent spatial sources in a complex performance or installation situation
Since the signifying and structuring features of electroacoustic music do not conform to agreed upon saliences, as is the case with most notated instrumental and vocal compositions, the strategies for visually representing music may vary enormously between different graphic scores.
A way of notating music and sound visually but without using traditional notation. Traditional notation provides a performer with instructions about the type of sound that they should create. When we record sounds we no longer need a performer to follow our instructions, we can work directly with the sound. In order to visualise what is going on in the sound we can look at the sounds waveform or its spectrogram. However, these will only provide us with scientific descriptions of the sound energy which might be quite different from what we actually hear.
If we want to understand the sounds that we hear, and relationships between the sounds, we can draw shapes and textures to represent what it is that we hear. Because sounds have both shape (envelope) and texture (timbre) it is possible to draw them visually. A graphic score is a visual interpretation of a piece of music. It could be in black and white (focussing on shading and shape), or in colour. Any shapes or textures can be used, so long as you are able to consistently link the sound with the image.
Most graphic scores will have a timeline running horizontally, and tend to provide a rough indication of pitch through vertical arrangements.
术语顾问/Consultant to terminology