In 舍费尔 理论 抽象 and Concrete are two isotopes of 现实 two faces of every 感知 interdependent and complementary which must be reconciled and balanced in 音乐 against the excess of concrete in 音乐 具体 or the excess of 抽象 in serial and other 种类 of a priori 音乐

When in 1948 皮埃尔 舍费尔 gave the name 具体 to the 音乐 which he 发明 he wanted to 证明 that this new 音乐 started from the concrete 声音 材料 from 听 声音 and then 寻求 to 抽象 音乐 价值 from it And this is the opposite of 古典 音乐 which starts from an 抽象 概念 and 记谱法 leading to a concrete 表演

Furthermore Schaeffer's table in the quatre écoutes is made by crossing horizontally and vertically the two 基(础) sets of opposites which are 已有 in every perceptual 活动 Objective/Subjective and Abstract/Concrete

The 声音 对象 the correlate of 化约 聆听 is 定义 as the 合成 of an 抽象 goal and a concrete goal which refer back to it the 对象 instead of using it to get at an 抽象 meaning or a concrete 源 Paraphrase of Michel Chion 1983 Guide des Objets Sonores Eds Buchet/Chastel Paris 1995 translation by John Dack/Christine North