The 应用(应用程序) of a 功能(函数) to 改变 the 音高 of 声音 most commonly changing their 时值 as well 音高移位 without this side-effect is 相关 to 时间缩放 In some machines this 功能(函数) can be 控制 by 震荡器 by hand-drawing or even by 动态 envelopes extracted from the 声音 itself or from other 声音 The 表达 designates only the 效果(效应) on pitched 声音 but such a 过程 can also be applied to non-periodic non-pitched 声音 or whole events 源 - Rodolfo Caesar 1992 The 作曲 of 电子声学 音乐 PhD Thesis University of East Anglia