This somewhat 难懂 术语 has evolved since the late 1950s and 试图 to 定义 it have provoked much-heated debate amongst 学术 and practitioners The 术语 has a 特定 meaning in 音频 工程 see 2 below and a rather-too-simplistic 解释 is that it was 采用 as an inclusive and 伞状 术语 as the 活动 of 音乐 具体 磁带 音乐 and 电子 音乐 作曲者 saw almost immediate cross-fertilization which continued through the 1960s and 70s

The 术语 saw early 用途 in the United Kingdom and Canada and during the 1970s tended amongst other 术语 to be used in the French 语言 électroacoustique in place of 音乐 具体 The 术语 was never in wide 用途 in the United States where 电子 音乐 磁带 音乐 and 计算机 音乐 predominated but recent years have seen an 增加 用途 here too The 术语 is currently widely used in 几个 European/South American languages 包括 Spanish and Portuguese

More recently some 尤其 in Canada have 采用 the 术语 电声 which 包括 电子声学 音乐 研究 in its 感觉 and has the advantage of emphasising the 多学科 本质(自然) of the 领域(野外) in the 细微差别 of its meaning See 4 below

Some argue that the 术语 is so 难懂 as to be unhelpful and should therefore be abandoned Others opt for the most 一般 可能 使用 of the 词 as an 伞状 术语 see 1 below The English 语言 has seen 增加 recent 用途 of the 术语 声音 艺术 and 电声 in place of 电子声学 音乐 The French 语言 has 几个 nuanced 二选一 包括 l'Art de Sons Fixés Michel Chion and 音乐 Acousmatique proposed by François Bayle in the early 1970s as a replacement for 音乐 具体 and a 手段(意味着) of delineating his 美学 concerns within the broader 领域(野外) of 电子声学 音乐

In an 试图 to illustrate 细微差别 the 跟随 four 确定(建立) 定义 are offered below

1 电子声学 音乐 提及 to any 音乐 in which electricity has had some involvement in 声音 registration and/or 制作 other than that of simple 话筒(麦克风) 录音 or 扩声 源 - Leigh Landy 1999 Reviewing the 音乐学 of 电子声学 音乐 Organised 声音 Vol 4 No 1 Cambridge Cambridge University Press 61-70

2 An adjective 描述 any 过程 involving the 转移 of a 信号 from acoustic to 电子 形(曲)式 or vice versa Most commonly 转换器 such as the 话筒(麦克风) or 扬声器 are examples of this 过程

Although the 术语 most 精确 提及 to a 信号 转移 from 电子 to acoustic 形(曲)式 or vice versa it also is often used more loosely to refer to any 过程 for the 电子 生成 and/or 处理 of 声音 信号 包括 技术 of 声音 合成 for the 电子 or 数字 生成 of such 信号 When the purpose of such 处理 is 艺术 the result is commonly called 电子声学 音乐 源 Barry Truax - Handbook for Acoustic 生态学 CD-ROM Edition Cambridge Street 出版 1999 - CSR-CDR 9901

3 音乐 in which 电子 技术 now primarily computer-based is used to access 产生 探索 and configure 声音 材料 and in which 扬声器 are the prime 媒介 of 传送 There are two 主要 风格 幻听 音乐 is 意图 for 扬声器 聆听 and exists only in 录制 磁带 形(曲)式 磁带 compact 光盘/磁盘 计算机 storage In 现场演出 电子 音乐 the 技术 is used to 产生 变形 or 触发 声音 or a 组合 of these in the act of 表演 this may include 生成 声音 with voices and 传统 乐器 电子声学 乐器 or other 设备 and 控制 linked to computer-based 系统 Both 风格 depend on 扬声器 传送 and an 电子声学 作品 can combine 幻听 and 现场演出 元素 源 - Simon Emmerson Denis Smalley 2001 The New Grove 词典 of 音乐 and 音乐家 - Second Edition Ed Stanley Sadie

4 电声 The 使用 of electricity for the 概念 ideation 创作 storage 制作 解释 分布 再现 感知 认知 visualization 分析 理解 and/or conceptualization of 声音

源 - Kevin Austin with an acknowledgement to Michael Century